Download === https://urlin.us/2tlgID
Substrate utilization by the nonexercising leg was studied in healthy subjects during one-leg exercise at an average work load of 105 W for 40 min (n equals 8) or during arm exercise at 65 W for 20 min (n equals 5). During one-leg exercise both the blood flow and the A-FV difference of oxygen for the non exercising leg rose, resulting in an approximately five fold increment in oxygen uptake. EMG activity of the leg was increased above basal. Despite unchanged or falling arterial levels of insulin, the A-FV difference for glucose across the nonexercising leg rose during exercise and the estimated glucose uptake increased approximately fourfold. Release of lactate in the basal state reverted to a significant net uptake of lactate by the nonexercising leg. During arm exercise there was a 20-70% rise in leg blood flow and the leg oxygen uptake rose 25-45% in spite of minimal EMG activity from the thigh muscles. There was a large uptake of lactate by the legs during arm exercise. We conclude that several important metabolic alterations take place in the nonexercising leg tissues during physical exertion: 1) blood flow and oxygen uptake rise, partly as a consequence of motor activation; 2) substrate utilization shifts from a predominant FFA uptake in the basal state to a greater utilization of carbohydrate; 3) nonexercising muscle, and possibly adipose tissue, play an important role in the removal of lactate during exercise.
The influence of exercise on leg and splanchnic exchange of substrates was examined in eight insulin-dependent diabetics 24 h after withdrawal of insulin and in eight healthy controls studied at rest and after 40 min of bicycle ergometer exercise at 55-60% of maximal capacity. In four of the diabetic subjects, basal arterial ketone acid levels were 3-4 mmol/ liter (ketotic diabetics) and in the remainder, below 1 mmol/liter (nonketotic diabetics). ,ree fatty acid (FFA) turnover and regional exchange were evaluated with 14-C- labeled oleic acid. Leg uptake of blood glucose rose 13-18 fold during exercise in both the diabetics and controls and accounted for a similar proportion of the total oxygen uptake by leg muscles (25-28%) in the two groups. In contrast, leg uptake of FFA corresponded to 39% of leg oxygen consumption in the diabetic group but only 27% in controls. Systemic turnover of oleic acid was similar in the two groups. Splanchnic glucose output increased during exercise 3-4 fold above resting levels in both groups. In the diabetics, splanchnic uptake of lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and glycogenic amino acids rose more than twofold above resting levels and was fourfold greater than in exercising controls. Total precursor uptake could account for 30% of the splanchnic glucose output in the diabetic group. In contrast, in the controls, total splanchnic uptake of glucose precursors was no greater during exercise than in the resting state and could account for no more than 11% of splanchnic glucose output. The augmented precursor uptake during exercise in the diabetics was a consequence of increased splanchnic fractional extraction as well as increased peripheral production of gluconeogenic substrates. The arterial glucagon concentration was unchanged by exercise in both groups, but was higher in the diabetics. In the diabetic subjects with ketosis in the resting state, exercise elicited a rise in arterial glucose and FFA, an augmented splanchnic uptake of FFA, and a 2-3 fold increase in splanchnic output of 3-hydroxybutyrate. Uptake of 3-hydroxybutyrate by the exercising leg rose more rapidly than splanchnic production, resulting in a fall in arterial levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate. It is concluded that (a) glucose uptake by exercising muscle in hyperglycemic diabetics is no different from that of controls; (b) splanchnic glucose output rises during exercise to a similar extent in diabetics and controls, while uptake of gluconeogenic substrates is markedly higher in diabetics and accounts for a greater proportion of total splanchnic glucose output; (c) exercise in diabetic patients with mild ketosis is associated with a rise in blood glucose and FFA levels as well as augmented splanchnic production and peripheral uptake of ketone bodies.
Childs had famously kept up the radical criteria of the postmodern dancers, no "meaning" but what lay in the movement itself. Though she used the balletic idiom of Merce Cunningham, which is not pedestrian and has a Cartesian beauty in its own right, still, it's as austere as the Pythagorean theorem. For the first 15 minutes, no leg rose higher than 30 degrees, and the dancers never took one step sideways. As the musical mood shifted, she added scuttling sideways steps, and some high extensions, but it wasn't til the second movement that she introduced a step that hopped. She refused to court the audience (as her mentors Merce Cunningham and Yvonne Rainer had done) with anything as tawdry as a climax. No "sell-out" tricks " no feel-good references to daily life or to romantic love, no recognizable gestures. There's not one pas de deux, not even a smile of recognition from one dancer to another. It's all pure movement in space and time, no one step that's more important than another, though someone might leave the ground floor and move up to the alto plano.